Australian Migration and Population Dashboard

Contextualising the real, relevant numbers behind Australia’s migration and population trends.

The migration dashboard was last updated on Thursday, 26-01-2023 - 14:30:00

Introduction

This website brings together Australian Government statistics to provide a single source of truth for current migration statistics. Each chart sorts and compares publicly available data to explain Australia’s migration and population story.

All sources are transparently marked and linked. As new or updated data becomes available, we’ll add it to this site. By showcasing reliable data, and making it more accessible, this site aims to inform public discussion and understanding of migration and population in Australia.

1.1%
Population growth
In the 12 months to June 2022, Australian population growth was about 1.1 percent of the population
170,918
Net Overseas Migration
In the 12 months to Jun 2022, Australian NOM was 170,918
143,556
Permanent skilled and family visas
There were 143, 556 skilled and family permanent visas granted in 2021-22
13,307
Humanitarian visas
There were 13,307 humanitarian visas granted in 2021-22
1.9 mil
Temporary visas
There were 1,926,337 people who had a temporary visa in Australia as at 30 June 2022

Part One

People

Australian population trends

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, migration had overtaken natural increase as the dominant component of population growth which led to an accelerated rate of population growth.

Over the last couple of years, owing to COVID related border closures, Australia's population growth has slowed considerably. As a result of the border changes, the Commonwealth Treasury estimated population growth in the budget to be 0.1 percent which is much lower than the previous year's 1.5 (at present as at Jun 2022 this figure is 1.13.

The Treasury Intergenerational Report - a five yearly deep dive on the demographic profile of Australia - showed that one of the biggest effects of the pandemic would be the lower population growth, and smaller population that would occur as a result.

The following statistics in Part One: People are sourced from the ABS net overseas migration data, and count actual people coming and going from Australia. 

Components of population growth

Since the opening of Australia's borders in November 2021, we've seen small increases to our net overseas migration figures. During the pandemic NOM dropped to a very low - lowest in approximately a century.

The caps on arrivals, introduced to stem the growth of COVID 19 in the community, meant that at most Australia could allow 26000 visitors entering the country a month. in the month of January 2020 alone, there were 2 million arrivals. Forecasts from the budget and the centre for population suggest that this should normalise in 2023-24.

Over this same period we have also seen a drop in natural increases (births minus deaths). This is due to the death toll owing to COVID 19 and other morbidities which were likely exacerbated by COVID-19. Births also dropped as fewer couples had access to fertility treatments during the periods of lockdown.

Technical Data

  • Population data is preliminary for three years. This means revisions can and do occur after the initial publication. 
  • There was a series break in the net overseas migration data as the ABS changed their method of categorising migrants. This occurred in September 2006.
  • To be counted as an arrival for the population, a person must be in Australia for 12 out of the past 16 months. This is called the 12/16 rule. Likewise, to be counted as a departure from the population, a person must have been out of Australia for 12 out of the past 16 months. This means tourists who are in Australia for two weeks are not included in population statistics. 

Net overseas migration: arrivals and departures

Migration to Australia is dynamic. Rather than people simply arriving and remaining here for the rest of their lives, people are coming and going. This is a consequence of changing patterns of global mobility.

In general, Australia’s rate of net overseas migration is positive because more people arrive than depart. The border closure has resulted in much smaller flows of both arrivals and departures. For the first time since World War Two, departures are greater than arrivals. 

Over the last few quarters since borders reopened,  arrivals have been increasing and departures falling.

Technical Data

  • Population data is preliminary for about three years. This means revisions are likely to occur to recent data. 
  • There was a series break in the net overseas migration data as the ABS changed their method of categorising migrants. This occurred in September 2006 and resulted in an increase in migration.
  • To be counted as an arrival, a person must be in Australia for 12 out of the past 16 months. This is called the 12/16 rule. Likewise, to be counted as a departure, a person must have been out of Australia for 12 out of the past 16 months. This means tourists who are in Australia for two weeks are not included in population statistics.

Where do people come from?

As migration numbers grow, there has also been a shift in where these migrants come from. The slow demise of the White Australia Policy from the 1950s through to the early 1970s laid the foundation for what we see today: people from Asian countries becoming a greater share of our population.

Arrivals and settlement from India is currently outstripping growth from China and New Zealand. This is in stark contrast to the beginning of the data displayed in the chart when  Italy Vietnam and Greece dominated.

Technical Data

  • Statistics for the year to 30 June 2018 are preliminary and for the year to 30 June 2017 have had standard revisions.
  • These statistics are based on the Census every five years and then updated annually by the ABS to show recent changes. 

State population growth

In addition to informing us of the ebb and flow of people to and from Australia, population statistics also tell a story about the changing populations of each state.  Australia’s national story looks different when examining state-by-state variation over time.

A common thread globally is the large representation of migrants in major urban centres. This is also true in Australia. At the time of the 2016 Census, 87 per cent of Australia’s migrants lived in capital cities, compared with 62 per cent of Australian-born people. This is not a new trend, with a similar proportion indicated by the 1996 Census.

Technical Data

  • Population data is preliminary for about three years. This means revisions are likely to occur to recent data. 
  • There was a series break in the net overseas migration data as the ABS changed their method of categorising migrants. This occurred in September 2006 and resulted in an increase in migration. 
  • To be counted as an arrival, a person must be in Australia for 12 out of the past 16 months. This is called the 12/16 rule. Likewise, to be counted as a departure, a person must have been out of Australia for 12 out of the past 16 months. This means tourists who are in Australia for two weeks are not included in population statistics.

Part Two

Visas

Visa trends

The following statistics in Part Two: Visas are sourced from the Department of Home Affairs administrative visa data, and count visas granted. In some circumstances, a person can be granted more than one visa. 

The pandemic and international border closure has had a major effect on how many visas the Australian Government grants to new migrants. Far fewer visas are being granted with Australia’s borders closed. This will likely remain the case until the international border has fully reopened into 2022. 

There are two broad types of visa: permanent and temporary.

Each year, the Australian Government decides how many permanent residency visas to grant. This is the primary policy-lever the Australian Government uses to affect the long-term rate of population growth. Apart from New Zealand citizens, it is very difficult to remain in Australia indefinitely without a permanent visa.

Sometimes, the number of permanent visas granted each year is confused with number of people coming to Australia each year. This is incorrect. Most new migrants come to Australia on a temporary visa. Because of this, about one in two permanent visas are granted to people already in Australia.

Unlike permanent visas, the Australian Government does not cap or limit the number of temporary visas granted to migrants. Instead, policy settings and eligibility criteria are used to shape trends. This is why temporary visas are sometimes called ‘demand-driven’.

Number of permanent visas granted by skill and family stream

Collectively, Australian Governments steadily increased the number of permanent visas available from the mid-1990s. This was primarily achieved by increasing the number of permanent skilled visas.

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the Australian Government had already reduced the number of permanent residency visas available from approximately 190,000 to approximately 160,000. Following the COVID period of low migration into Australia, and a period where most visas were granted to people who were already in Australia, the Labor Government announced an increase of the permanent intake to 195000.

Technical Data

  • The Howard Government changed the composition of permanent visas by broadly granting two skilled visas for each family visa. This 2:1 ratio has been maintained regardless of the total number of visas granted each year. 
  • There is no official figure for the number of people who live in Australia on a permanent visa. 
  • About half of all permanent visas are granted to people who are already in Australia. This is called an ‘onshore’ visa grant, and reflects the trend that some people arrive on a temporary visa and then transition to a permanent visa over time.

Population of temporary visa holders in Australia

The number of people in Australia who held a temporary visa has increased over the years reaching over two million in 2018 from just under 1 million people in June 2000.

The number of people on temporary visas fell between 2020 and 2021, because of the border closures. The largest contributors to the decline in temporary visa holders in Australia appear to be visitors and working holiday makers.

There are a number of major temporary visa categories. New Zealand citizens are the largest group in Australia, followed by international students. Both of these groups of people increased throughout the 2000s and 2010s with the growth of the international education sector, and with many NZ citizens choosing to live in Australia under the Trans Tasman Travel Agreement.

From the Howard Government onwards, all Australian Governments have placed an increasing emphasis on the role of temporary visas for Australian migration policy. This has resulted in a marked increase in the number of temporary visas granted, as well as a growing population of people living in Australia on temporary visas.

Technical Data

  • Every person who holds a temporary visa and is in Australia is included in this data source. Critically, not all of these people are included in the official population statistics as some will not meet the residency periods required to be a new addition to the population. 
  • This means caution should be used when assessing population trends, and conflating this visa data with population data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics.  

Student visas

International student visas have been the major reason why Australia has seen a large increase in temporary visa holders. A strong majority of these visas are linked to universities and vocational education providers. Since 2012-13, student visas have grown by an average of 8-10 per cent per year.

The international border closure has stopped this growth and see a large decrease in the total number of visas granted to international students. 

There is much uncertainty about the future regarding international students in Australia. In addition to COVID-19, other factors will shape what happens into the future, including the behaviour of higher education providers, the economy, policy settings, and Australia’s relative attractiveness compared with other countries.

Technical Data

  • This chart shows primary visas, meaning the person who is attending the course and not any of their family members who may also be in Australia. 
  • The chart shows that student visas grew through the late-2000s, and then slowed. This was the result of both economic conditions, and visa policy changes by the Rudd Government.

Working holiday visas

During the border closures, fewer working holiday maker visas were granted. this led to a major decrease in the number of working holiday makers in Australia as those leaving were not replaced by new arrivals. In 2022 so far, we've seen an uptick in the number of working holiday maker grants.

A working Holiday Maker visa is granted for 12 months and allows people under 30 and 35 from a number of countries the opportunity to work and holiday in Australia.

This visa category grew quickly through the Global Financial Crisis and mining boom as Australia was relatively well off economically speaking, in comparison to other developed countries.

This has since levelled off since 2016. More recently, some newer Free trade agreements that have been signed between Australia and other countries include provisions for a capped number of youth mobility visas so we could see these numbers increase over the next few years.

A second and third year visa is available if applicants conduct three or six months’ work in regional communities, working in the agricultural, construction or mining sectors, tourism or hospitality sectors.

Technical Data

  • Australia has 43 bilateral agreements either in place or being negotiated, which are the foundation of the working holiday category.
  • People must be under 30 (this is being increased to 35) and the visa is valid for 12 months, with work rights attached. 
  • In July 2019, a third year visa was introduced. This will begin to appear from the 2020 March quarter of the statistics.

Temporary skilled visas

Temporary Work (skilled) visas are employer-sponsored visas, which last up to two or four years. As the visa requires an employer to sponsor the worker, this visa category often tracks the strength or weakness of the labour market. There was a strong dip after the GFC, with subsequent growth through the mining boom. This was previously called the 457 visa. Slower economic growth, together with restrictive policy changes has resulted in lower visa grants over the past three years.

Australia’s border closures meant a sharp downturn for new temporary skilled visa grants.  In 2022 we've seen these visa grants rise above the 2020 and 2021 figures. This could be in part due to a desire to fill the large number of skills shortages that have across different occupations in the Australian economy.

Technical Data

  • The chart refers to primary temporary work (skilled) visas only and not the spouses or children of people who are granted the primary visa. 
  • This visa has undergone significant policy and regulatory changes over time, making it difficult to assess with confidence the relationship between the labour market, visa trends, and government policy decisions. 
  • This visa has a much higher share of people who transition to permanent residency visas than any other temporary visa.

Temporary graduate visas

Temporary graduate visas allow international students who studied eligible courses to gain a two, three, or four year working visa. The visa was overhauled in 2011, laying the foundation for the strong growth seen since 2016. 

Unlike other temporary visas, the vast majority of people who apply for a temporary graduate visa are already in Australia. This means the border closure has had a more muted effect for temporary graduate visas compared to other visa categories. 

This visa is considered important by the higher education sector in attracting international students. However, there is little evidence to assess this. It is also unclear if this visa is primarily intended as a student-related visa or a labour-market visa.

Technical Data

  • The figures in the chart refer to all temporary graduate visas granted, including the spouses and children of the person who is granted the primary visa.